Hindi Diwas, celebrated on the 14th of September every year, commemorates the adoption of Hindi as one of India’s official languages. On this occasion, we pay tribute to some of the most influential Hindi writers whose literary contributions have enriched our cultural heritage. From poetry that touches the soul to novels that explore the lives of humans, these writers have left a distinctive mark on Hindi literature. Let’s delve into the works of these literary giants.
02/13Ramdhari Singh Dinkar
Dinkar, known as the “Rashtrakavi” (National Poet), was a renowned poet who composed powerful verses that stirred the nation’s spirit. His epic poem, ‘Rashmirathi,’ is a masterpiece that narrates the life of Karna from the Mahabharata, reflecting themes of valor and sacrifice. ‘Kurukshetra,’ his other significant work, delves into the moral dilemmas faced by Arjuna in the Mahabharata.
03/13Maithili Sharan Gupt
A pioneer of the Chhayavaad movement, Maithili Sharan Gupt emphasized romanticism and introspection. His poetry is characterized by its lyrical quality. His collection ‘Bharat-Bharati’ celebrates the beauty and diversity of India’s culture, making it a must-read. ‘Saket’ is another significant work that explores Lord Rama’s inner conflict during his exile.
Makhanlal Chaturvedi was not just a poet but also a prolific journalist and freedom fighter. His work, ‘Pushp Ki Abhilasha’ is a gem in Hindi literature, expressing the longing of a flower to be offered at the feet of the divine. His profound thoughts on patriotism and spirituality are reflected in his works. He received the Sahitya Akademi Award for his collection ‘Him Tarangini’ in 1955.
05/13Suryakant Tripathi ‘Nirala’
Nirala was a versatile writer who wrote poetry, novels, and essays. His poetry blends traditional and modern elements, capturing the essence of his time. His poetry is marked by a blend of romanticism and realism, often depicting the struggles of the common man. ‘Ram Ki Shakti Puja’ is a poignant exploration of faith, while ‘Saroj Smriti’ reflects his deep emotions.
A trailblazing feminist writer, Mahadevi Varma’s poetry is a reflection of women’s empowerment. Her feminist perspective challenged societal norms and encouraged women to embrace their identity. She was also a prominent educator and women’s rights advocate. Her collection ‘Yama’ challenges societal norms, while ‘Nihar’ and ‘Neelkanth’ delves into themes of love and longing.
Known as the ‘Upanyas Samrat’ (Emperor of Novels), Premchand’s stories, set in rural India, portray the harsh realities faced by the common people. He was a prolific Hindi novelist and short story writer, who crafted narratives that reflected human emotions and societal issues of his time. ‘Godaan’ is often regarded as one of his finest works, highlighting the struggles of a poor farmer. His other heart-touching stories include ‘Kafan’, ‘Godaan’, ‘Budhi Kaki’, among others.
08/13Harivansh Rai Bachchan
Harivansh Rai Bachchan, an eminent figure in the early 20th-century Hindi literary landscape, was a prominent poet of the Nayi Kavita movement. He was also a notable participant in the Hindi Kavi Sammelan. He gained widespread recognition for his iconic creation, “Madhushala.” In 1969, he was honored with the Sahitya Akademi Award, and seven years afterward, the Indian government acknowledged his significant contributions to Hindi literature by awarding him the Padma Bhushan.
Prasad was not only a poet but also a renowned playwright and essayist. His work ‘Kamayani’ is an epic poem that delves into the human psyche, depicting the conflict between human desires and spiritual aspirations. It’s a profound exploration of existential questions. ‘Chandragupta’ is one of his acclaimed plays, depicting the life of the Mauryan emperor. His deep philosophical and spiritual explorations are evident in his works.
Sumitranandan Pant’s poetry is imbued with the beauty of nature and spirituality. His book ‘Gunjan’ is a collection of poems that captures the essence of the Himalayas and the human connection with the divine. His other notable work, ‘Rang-Bhoomi’ is a novel that explores social and political themes. He received the prestigious Jnanpith Award for his contributions to Hindi literature.
Dushyant Kumar is known for his modern and progressive style of poetry, often touching upon themes of love, social issues, and human emotions. His works, such as ‘Saaye Mein Dhoop’ and ‘Bhagat Singh,’ are celebrated for their thought-provoking verses that resonate with readers even today. His poem ‘Ho Gayi Hai Peer Parvat Si Pighalni Chahiye’ reflects the pain and disillusionment of his generation.
Sampooran Singh Kalra, better known by his pen name Gulzar, is an acclaimed Indian poet, lyricist, and filmmaker. Gulzar is known for his remarkable contribution to both Hindi and Urdu literature. His poetry often explores various facets of life, love, and human relationships. Apart from his poetry, he is renowned for his lyrics in Hindi cinema, which have won numerous awards. He has written a few books, including a poetry collection ‘Dhuan’.
Bhartendu Harishchandra, often referred to as the “Father of Modern Hindi Literature,” was a prominent figure in the Hindi literary renaissance during the 19th century. He played a pivotal role in reviving and modernizing the Hindi language and literature. He promoted the use of vernacular Hindi and authored numerous essays, poems, and plays that contributed to the growth of Hindi literature. His efforts laid the foundation for the development of modern Hindi as a literary language. ‘Andher Nagri’ is one of his famous works.